Main Article Content
This paper engages, critiques, and develops McIntosh’s concept of White privilege. The author argues that this concept mislabels the nature of racism, and unintentionally derails racial dialogues. He then offers White immunity as a concept that helps address some of the conceptual and pedagogical limitations of “privilege.” Finally, he addresses possible misinterpretations of this new terminology to avoid some of the misapplications that have plagued “White privilege.”
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
JCSCORE (ISSN 2642-2387) provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge. All content in JCSCORE is freely available without charge to the user or his/her institution. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author. This is in accordance with the BOAI definition of open access.
Unless otherwise noted, works published in JCSCORE are distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial Share-Alike License (CC BY-NC-SA). By granting a CC BY-NC-SA license in their work, authors retain copyright ownership of the work, but they give explicit permission for others to download, reuse, reprint, modify, distribute, and/or copy the work, as long as the original source and author(s) are properly cited (i.e. a complete bibliographic citation and link to the JCSCORE website), re-use of the work is not for commercial purposes, and the re-used work is shared with the same license. No permission is required from the author(s) or the publishers for such use. According to the terms of the CC BY-NC-SA license, any reuse or redistribution must indicate the original CC-BY-NC-SA license terms of the work.
Exceptions to the application of the CC BY-NC-SA license may be granted at the author(s)’ discretion if reasonable extenuating circumstances exist. Such exceptions must be granted in writing. For coordinating use permission you may either contact the author directly or email email@example.com.
Applebaum, B. (2010). Being White, being good: White complicity, White moral responsibility, and social justice pedagogy. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9752.2011.00813.x
Bonilla-Silva, E. (2006). Racism without racists: Color-blind racism and the persistence of racial inequality in the United States (2nd ed.). Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/40264552
Cabrera, N. L., Franklin, J. D., & Watson, J. S. (2017). Whiteness in higher education: The invisible missing link in diversity and racial analyses. Association for the Study of Higher Education monograph series. San Francisco, CA: Jossey- Bass. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/aehe.20116
Cabrera, N. L., Watson, J., & Franklin, J. D. (2016). Racial arrested development: A Critical Whiteness analysis of the campus ecology. Journal of College Student Development, 57(2), 119-134. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1353/csd.2016.0014
Cabrera, N.L. (2012). Working through Whiteness: White male college students challenging racism. The Review of Higher Education, 35(3), 375-401. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1353/rhe.2012.0020
Cabrera, N.L. (2014). Exposing Whiteness in higher education: White, male college students minimizing racism, claiming victimization, and recreating White supremacy. Race Ethnicity and Education, 17(1), 30-55. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/13613324.2012.725040
DuBois, W. E. B. (1935). Black reconstruction: An essay toward a history of the part which black folk played in the attempt to reconstruct democracy in America, 1860-1880. New York, NY: Hardcourt, Brace and Company. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315147413-3
Haney-López, I. (2006). White by law: The legal construction of race (pp.78-108). New York, NY: NYU Press.
Ignatiev, N. (1995). How the Irish became white. New York: Routledge.
Lensmire, T. J., McManimon, S. K., Tierney, J. D., Lee-Nichols, M. E., Casey, Z. A.,
Lensmire, A., and Davis, B. M. (2013). McIntosh as synecdoche: How teacher education’s focus on white privilege undermines antiracism. Harvard Educational Review, 83(3), 410-431. https://doi.org/10.17763/haer.83.3.35054h14l8230574
Leonardo, Z. (2004). The color of supremacy: Beyond the discourse of “white privilege.” Educational Philosophy and Theory, 36(2), 137-152. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-5812.2004.00057.x
MacMullan, T. (2009). Habits of Whiteness: A pragmatist reconstruction. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.
Matias, C. E. (2016). Feeling white: Whiteness, emotionality, and education. Boston, MA: Sense Publishers. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-6300-450-3
McIntosh, P. (1989). White privilege: Unpacking the invisible knapsack. Peace and Freedom, 10-12.
Mills, C. W. (1997). The Racial Contract. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Omi, M. & Winant, H. (1994/2015). Racial formation in the United States. New York: Routledge.
Roediger, D. R. (1991). The wages of Whiteness. London: Vasso.