Main Article Content
This phenomenological study used semi-structured interviews with 13 Black college students attending a university that is both an Asian American Native American Pacific Islander Serving Institution (AANAPISI) and emerging Hispanic-Serving Institution (HSI) to explore their racial experiences using symbolic interaction theory. Findings demonstrate that despite attending a minority-serving institution, Black students felt a cultural mismatch with their Asian and Latinx peers and the values of their campus. Being a minority within a minority-serving institution, they also experienced being invisible and hypervisible simultaneously.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
JCSCORE (ISSN 2642-2387) provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge. All content in JCSCORE is freely available without charge to the user or his/her institution. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author. This is in accordance with the BOAI definition of open access.
Unless otherwise noted, works published in JCSCORE are distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial Share-Alike License (CC BY-NC-SA). By granting a CC BY-NC-SA license in their work, authors retain copyright ownership of the work, but they give explicit permission for others to download, reuse, reprint, modify, distribute, and/or copy the work, as long as the original source and author(s) are properly cited (i.e. a complete bibliographic citation and link to the JCSCORE website), re-use of the work is not for commercial purposes, and the re-used work is shared with the same license. No permission is required from the author(s) or the publishers for such use. According to the terms of the CC BY-NC-SA license, any reuse or redistribution must indicate the original CC-BY-NC-SA license terms of the work.
Exceptions to the application of the CC BY-NC-SA license may be granted at the author(s)’ discretion if reasonable extenuating circumstances exist. Such exceptions must be granted in writing. For coordinating use permission you may either contact the author directly or email firstname.lastname@example.org.
Bernard, H. R. (2002). Research methods in anthropology: Qualitative and quantitative methods. Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira Press.
Blumer, H. (1969) Symbolic Interactionism. Perspective and Method. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Brown, B.A., Mangram, C., Sun, K., Cross, K., & Raab, E. (2017). Representing racial identity: Identity, race, the construction of the African American STEM students. Urban Education, 52(2), 170-206. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0042085916661385
Carter, M.J. & Fuller, C. (2015). ‘Symbolic Interactionism’, Sociopedia.Isa, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/205684601561
Creswell, J. (2013). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches (3rd ed). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Croom, N. N. (2017). Promotion beyond Tenure: Unpacking Racism and Sexism in the Experiences of Black Womyn Professors. Review of Higher Education, 40(4), 557–583. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1353/rhe.2017.0022
Cross, W. E. (1971). The Negro to black conversion experience: Towards the psychology of black liberation. Journal of Black Psychology, 5(1), 13–31.
Cross, W. E. (1978). The Thomas and Cross models of psychological nigrescence: A review. Journal of Black Psychology, 5(1), 13-31. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/009579847800500102
Cross, W. E., Jr. (1995). The psychology of Nigrescence: Revising the cross model. In J. G. Ponterotto, J. M. Casas, L. A. Suzuki, & C. M. Alexander (Eds.), Handbook of multicultural counseling (pp. 93-122). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Devine, P. G. (1989). Stereotypes and prejudice: Their automatic and controlled components. Journal of personality and social psychology, 56(1), 5. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-35126.96.36.199
Diggs, G. A., Garrison-Wade, D. F., Estrada, D., & Galindo, R. (2009). Smiling faces and colored spaces: The experiences of faculty of color pursuing tenure in the academy. Urban Review, 41(4), 312–333. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11256-008-0113-y
Domingue, A. D. (2015). “Our leaders are just we ourself”: Black women college student leaders’ experiences with oppression and sources of nourishment on a predominantly White college campus. Equity & Excellence in Education, 48(3), 454-472. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10665684.2015.1056713
Fischer, E. M. J. (2007). Settling into campus life: Differences by race/ethnicity in college involvement and outcomes. The Journal of Higher Education, 78(2), 125-161. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1353/jhe.2007.0009
Fleming, J. (1983). Black women in Black and White college environments: The making of a matriarch. Journal of Social Issues, 39(3), 41–54. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4560.1983.tb00154.x
Flores, S. & Park, T. J. (2015). The effect of enrolling in a minority-serving institution for Black and Hispanic students in Texas. Research in Higher Education, 56(3), 247-276. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11162-014-9342-y
Griffin, K. A., Pifer, M. J., Humphrey, J. R., & Hazelwood, A. M. (2011). (Re)defining departure: Exploring Black professors’ experiences with and responses to racism and racial climate. American Journal of Education, 117(4), 495–526. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1086/660756
Guiffrida, D. A., & Douthit, K. Z. (2010). The Black student experience at predominantly White colleges: Implications for school and college counselors. Journal of Counseling & Development, 88(3), 311–318. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1556-6678.2010.tb00027.x
Harper, S. R. (2015). Black male college achievers and resistant responses to racist stereotypes at predominantly White colleges and universities. Harvard Educational Review, 85(4), 646-674. DOI: https://doi.org/10.17763/0017-8055.85.4.646
Harper, S. R., & Hurtado, S. (2007). Nine themes in campus racial climates and implications for institutional transformation. New Directions for Student Services, 2007(120), 7-24. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/ss.254
Harper, S. R., & Newman, C. B. (2016). Surprise, Sensemaking, and Success in the First College Year: Black Undergraduate Men’s Academic Adjustment Experiences. Teachers College Record, 118(6), 1-30.
Huber, J. (1973). Symbolic interaction as a pragmatic perspective. The bias of emergent theory', American Sociological Review, 38(6), 274–84. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/2094400
Kanter, J. W., Williams, M. T., Kuczynski, A. M., Manbeck, K., Debreaux, M., & Rosen, D. (2017). A preliminary report on the relationship between microaggressions against Blacks and racism among White college students. Race and Social Problems, 9(4), 291– 299. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12552-017-9214-0
Karkouti, I. M. (2016). Black students' educational experiences in predominantly white universities: A review of the related literature. College Student Journal, 50(1), 59-70.
Kim, M. M. (2002). Historically Black vs. White institutions: Academic development among Black students. The Review of Higher Education, 25(4), 385–407.
Kim, E. & Hargrove, D. T. (2013). The race against time: Preparing Black students for the changing landscape of higher education. The Journal of Negro Education, 82(3), 300-311.
Laird T, Bridges B, Morelon-Quainoo C, Williams J and Salinas Homes M (2007) African American and Hispanic student engagement at minority serving and predominantly white institutions, Journal of College Student Development, 48(1), 39–56. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1353/csd.2007.0005
Maxwell, J. (2013). Qualitative research design: An interactive approach (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Mobley (2017). Seeking sanctuary: (re)claiming the power of historically Black colleges and universities as places of Black refuge. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, 30(10), 1036-1041. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/09518398.2017.1312593
Padilla-Diaz, M. (2015). Phenomenology in educational qualitative research: Philosophy as science or philosophical science? International Journal of Educational Excellence, 1(2), 101-110. DOI: https://doi.org/10.18562/IJEE.2015.0009
Reddick, R. J., Heilig, J. V., & Valdez, P. L. (2012). Bridging a Black-Brown Divide: Black Male Students at Hispanic-Serving Institutions. In A. A. Hilton, J. L. Wood, & C. W. Lewis (Eds.), Black males in postsecondary education: Examining their experiences in diverse institutional contexts, (pp. 183-208). Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing.
Reeder, M. C., & Schmitt, N. (2013). Motivational and judgment predictors of African American academic achievement at PWIs and HBCUs. Journal of College Student Development, 54(1), 29–42. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1353/csd.2013.0006
Salinas, C., Jr., & Lozano, A. (2019). Mapping and recontextualizing the evolution of the term Latinx: An environmental scanning in higher education. Journal of Latinos and Education, 18(4), 302-315. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/15348431.2017.1390464
Sedlacek, W. E. (1987). Black Students on White Campuses: 20 Years of Research. Journal of College Student Personnel, 28(6), 484–95.
Sedlacek, W. E. (1999). Black Students on White Campuses: 20 Years of Research. Journal of College Student Development, 40(5), 538–50.
Sedlacek, W. E., & Brooks, G. C., Jr. (1976). Racism in American education: A model for change. Chicago: Nelson-Hall.
Seidman, I. (1998). Interviewing as qualitative research: A guide for researchers in education and the social sciences. New York: Teachers College Press.
Smith, W. A., Allen, W. R., & Danley, L. L. (2007). “Assume the position... you fit the description” psychosocial experiences and racial battle fatigue among African American male college students. American Behavioral Scientist, 51(4), 551-578.
Solórzano, D., Ceja, M., & Yosso, T. (2000). Critical race theory, racial microaggressions, and campus racial climate: The experiences of African American college students. Journal of Negro Education, 69(1/2), 60-73.
Steele, C. M. (1997). A threat in the air: How stereotypes shape intellectual identity and performance. American Psychologist, 52(6), 613–629. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.52.6.613
Steele, C. M., & Aronson, J. (1995). Stereotype threat and the intellectual test performance of African Americans. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69(5), 797–811. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-35188.8.131.527
Stephens, N. M., Fryberg, S. A., Markus, H. R., Johnson, C., Covarrubias, R. (2012). Unseen disadvantage: How American universities’ focus on independence undermines the academic performance of first-generation college students. Journal of Personality of Social Psychology, 102(6), 1178-1197. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/a0027143
Vandiver, B. J., Cross, W. E., Jr., Worrell, F. C., & Fhagen-Smith, P. E. (2002). Validating the Cross Racial Identity Scale. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 49(1), 71-85. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0184.108.40.206