“From White Deaf People’s Adversity to Black Deaf Gain”: A Proposal for a New Lens of Black Deaf Educational History

Main Article Content

Rezenet Tsegay Moges

Abstract

This paper re-visits Bauman and Murray’s (2014) “Deaf Gain,” using the perspectives of Black Deaf history.  Due to the enforcement of the Oral policy in U.S. educational system during 1890s through 1960s, the language transmission of American Sign Language (ASL) for many generations of White Deaf people were fractured (Gannon, 1981).  During the segregation, approximately 81.25% of the Black Deaf schools maintained their signed education, which ironically provided better education than the White-only schools.  Consequently, the language variation of Black Deaf people in the South, called as “Black ASL” (McCaskill et al., 2011), flourished due to the historical adversity of White Deaf experience.  Thus, the sustainability of Black ASL empowered this ethnic group of American Deaf community, which I am re-framing to what I call “Black Deaf Gain” and presenting a different objective of the ontology of Black Deaf experience.

Article Details

Section
Articles

References

Abes, E. S., & Wallace, M. M. (2018). “People see me, but they don’t see me”: Na intersectional study of college students with physical disabilities. Journal of College Student Development, 59(5), 545–562.

Ali, A. I. & Buenavista, T. L. (Eds.). (2018). Introduction. Education at war!: The fight for students of color in America’s public schools. Fordham
University Press.

Anderson, G. B. (2006). Still I Rise! The enduring legacy of Black Deaf Arkansans before & after integration. Little Rock, AR: Arkansas Association of the Deaf, Inc.

Anzaldúa, G. (1990). Haciendo Caras/making face, making soul: creative and critical perspectives by Women of Color. Aunt Lute Press.

Aramburo, A. (1989). Sociolinguistic aspect of the Black deaf community. In C. Lucas (Ed.), The sociolinguistic of the Deaf community (pp. 103–119). Academic Press.

Bauman, H-D. L., & Murray, J. J. (2009). Reframing: From Hearing Loss to Deaf Gain. Deaf Studies Digital Journal, 1, 1–10.

Bauman, H-D. L. & Murray, J. J. (2014). Deaf gain: Raising the stakes for human diversity. University of Minnesota Press.

Baynton, D. (1993). “Savages and Deaf-Mutes”: Evolutionary theory and the campaign against sign language in the nineteenth century. In J. V. Van Cleve (ed.), Deaf history unveiled: interpretations from the new scholarship (pp. 92–112). Gallaudet University Press.

Baynton, D. (1996). Forbidden Signs: American Culture and the Campaign against sign language. University of Chicago.

Bell, Jr., D. (1976). Serving two masters: Integration ideals and client interests in school desegregation litigation. Yale Law Journal, 85(4), 470–516.

Burch, S. (2002). Signs of Resistance: American Deaf Cultural History, 1900 to 1942. New York University Press.

Clark, H. (2007). Signing and signifyin': Negotiating Deaf and African American identities. Ethnic Studies Review, 30(1&2), 115–124.

Cohen, O. (1993). Educational needs of African American and Hispanic deaf children. In K. Christensen & G. Delgado (Eds.), Multicultural issues in Deafness (pp. 45–67). Longman.

Crenshaw, K. (1989). Demarginalizing the intersection of race and sex: A Black feminist critique of antidiscrimination doctrine, feminist theory, and antiracist politics. University of Chicago Legal Forum, 1(8), 139-167.

Crenshaw, K. (1991.) Mapping the margins: Intersectionality, identity politics, and violence against Women of Color. Stanford Law Review, 43(6), 1241–1299.

Croneberg, C. G. (1965). Sign language dialects. (Appendix) In W. C. Stokoe, D. C. Casterline, & C. G. Croneberg, A dictionary of American Sign Language on linguistic principles (pp. 313–319). Gallaudet College Press.

Collins, P. H. (1986). Learning from the outsider within: The sociological significance of Black Feminist thought. Social Problems, 33(6), S14-S32.

Cullinan, D. & Hutcheson, N. (2020). Signing Black in America. PBS [Video]. https://drive.google.com/file/d/1rj0B8K5klPKKq9AppUMIknpU2_U_ccQP/view

de Clerck, G. (2010). Deaf Epistemologies as a critique and alternative to the practice of science: An anthropological perspective. American Annals of the Deaf, 154(5), 435 – 446.

Delgado, R. & Stefancic, J. (2001). Critical race theory: An introduction. New York University Press.

Dumas, M. J. & ross, k. m. (2016). “Be real Black for me”: Imagining BlackCrit in education. Urban Education, 51(4), 415—442.

Dunn, L. (2005). A dream deferred: Deaf people of African heritage and the struggle of equality and opportunity. In J. Fuller, B. Hollrah, J. G. Lewis, & C. McCaskill-Henry, (eds.), Black perspectives on the Deaf community (pp. 163–172). Gallaudet University.

Gannon, J. (1981). Deaf heritage: A narrative history of Deaf America. Silver Spring, MD: National Association of the Deaf.

Gallaudet University Press. (2019a, 17 May). Black ASL project: Mary Herring Wright's Interview. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6zH_zudU034

Gallaudet University Press. (2019b, 10 Feb). The Hidden treasure of Black ASL: Chapter 2. YouTube [video]. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OI0NsvzErLk&list=PLj06bPbAU0PqPVBXxOK2fLiond82P1Sag&index=3&t=0s

Gallaudet University Press. (n.d.). The Hidden Treasure of Black ASL: Companion Video to the Book. YouTube [Videos]. https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLj06bPbAU0PqPVBXxOK2fLiond82P1
Sag

García-Fernández, C. (2014). Deaf-Latina/Latino critical theory in education: The lived experiences and multiple intersecting identities of deaf-Latina/o high school students. (Unpublished doctorate dissertation). University of Texas, Austin.

Gertz, E. N. (2003). Dysconscious audism and critical Deaf studies: Deaf crit’s analysis of unconscious internalization of hegemony within the Deaf community. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of California Los Angeles.

Greenwald, B. H. (2007). Taking stock: Alexander Graham Bell and eugenics, 1883– 1922. In J. V. Van Cleve, The deaf history reader, (pp. 136–152). Gallaudet University Press.

Hairston, E. & Smith, L. (1983). Black and Deaf in America. T.J. Publishers.

Herring-Wright, M. (1999). Sounds like home: Growing up Black and Deaf in the South. Gallaudet University Press.

Hill, J. C. (2012). Language Attitudes in the American Deaf Community. Gallaudet University Press.

Holcomb, T. (2013). Introduction to American Deaf culture. Oxford University Press.

Humphries, T. (1977). Communicating across cultures (Deaf/hearing) and language learning. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Union Graduate School, Cincinnati, OH.

Jowers-Barber, S. (2008). The Struggle to Educate Black Deaf School children in Washington, DC. In B.H. Greenwald & J. V. Van Cleve (eds.), A Fair Chance in the Race of Life: The Role of Gallaudet University in Deaf History (pp. 113–132). Gallaudet University Press.

Knorr, R. & Whatley, C. (2015). The segregated Georgia School for the Deaf: 1882-1975. Sunbury Press.

Kusters, A., M. De Meulder & D. O’Brien. (2017). Innovations of Deaf scholars. Oxford University Press.

Lane, H. (2013 [1984]). When the mind hears: A history of the Deaf. Vintage Books.

Lewis, J. G. (2005). Ebonics in American sign language: Stylistic variation in African American signers. In J. Fuller, B. Hollrah, J. G. Lewis, & C. McCaskill-Henry (eds.), Black perspectives on the Deaf community (pp. 221–235). Gallaudet University Press.

Lucas, C., Bayley, R., Reed, R., & Wulf, A. (2001). Lexical variation in African American and White signing. American Speech, 76(4), 339-360.

Luczak, R. (1993). Eyes of desire: A Deaf gay and lesbian reader. Alyson Publications.

Malzkuhn, M. (2016). Compromising for agency: The role of the NAD during the American eugenics movement, 1880–1940. In B. H. Greenwald & J. J. Murrayeds (eds), In our own hands: Essays in Deaf history, 1780-1970, (pp. 171–193). Gallaudet University Press.

Maxwell, M. M. & Smith-Todd, S. (1986). Black sign language and school integration in Texas. Language in Society, 15(1), 81–93.

McCaskill, C. (2005). The education of Black Deaf Americans in the 20th century: Policy Implications for administrators in residential schools for the Deaf. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Gallaudet University.

McCaskill, C., Lucas, C., Bayley, R., & Hill, J. (2011). The hidden treasure of Black ASL: Its history and structures. Gallaudet University Press.

McCaskill, C., Lucas, C., Bayley, R., & Hill, J. (2016). Citizenship and education: The case of Black Deaf community. In B. H. Greenwald & J. J. Murrayeds (eds), In our own hands: Essays in Deaf history, 1780-1970, (pp. 40–60). Gallaudet University Press.

Moges, R. (2015). Resistance is NOT futile: Language planning and demissionization of Eritrean sign language. In K.K. Rashid & A.A. Cooper (eds.), Citizenship, politics, difference: Perspectives from sub-Saharan signed language communities (pp. 64-80). Gallaudet University Press.

Moges, R. (2017). Cripping Deaf studies and Deaf literature: Deaf Queer ontologies and intersectionality. In A. Kusters, M. De Meulder & D. O’Brien (eds.), Innovations of Deaf scholars (pp. 330–364). Oxford University Press.

Padden, C. A. & Humphries. T. L. (2005). Inside Deaf culture. Harvard University Press.

Ogunyipe, B. (n.d.). Black Deaf Culture Through the Lens of Black Deaf History. https://dcmp.org/learn/366-black-deaf-culture-through-the-lens-of-black-deaf-history

Parasnis, I. (2012). Diversity and Deaf identity: Implications for personal epistemologies in Deaf education. In P. Paul & D. Moores (eds.), Deaf epistemologies: Multiple perspectives on the acquisition of knowledge (pp. 63-80). Gallaudet University Press.

Settle, C. (1940). Normal training for colored teachers. American Annals of the Deaf, 85, 209–215.

Simms, L., Rusher, M., Andrews, J. F., & Coryell, J. (2008). Apartheid in Deaf education: Examining workforce diversity. American Annals of the Deaf, 153(4), 384–395.

Skutnabb-Kangas, T. (1988). Multilingualism and the education of minority children. In T. Skutnabb-Kangas & J. Cummins (Eds.), Minority education: From shame to struggle, (9-44). Multilingual Matters.

Spitulnik, D. (1998). Mediating unity and diversity: The production of language ideologies in Zambian broadcasting. In B. Schieffelin, K. Woolard & P. Kroskrity (Eds.), Language ideologies: Practice and theory (pp. 163–188). Oxford University Press.

Solórzano, D. (1997). Images and words that wound: Critical race theory, racial stereotyping and teacher education. Teacher Education Quarterly, 24, 5–19.

Solórzano, D. G. & T. J. Yosso. (2002). Critical race methodology: Counter-storytelling as an analytical framework for education research. Qualitative Inquiry, 8(1), 23–44.

Stapleton, L. D. (2014). The unexpected talented tenth: Black d/Deaf students thriving within the margins. Unpublished PhD Dissertation. Iowa State University.

Stapleton, L. D. (2016). Audism and racism: The hidden curriculum impacting Black d/Deaf college students in the classroom. The Negro Educational Review, 67(1-4), 150–168.

Stapleton, L. D., & Croom, N. (2017). Narratives of Black d/Deaf college alum: Reflecting on intersecting microaggressions in college. Journal of Student Affairs Research and Practice, 54(1), 15–27.

Stuart, P. & Gilchrist, A. (2005). A Sense of Identity. In J. Fuller, B. Hollrah, J. G. Lewis, & C. McCaskill-Henry (Eds.), Black perspectives on the Deaf community (pp. 61–71). Gallaudet University.

Valli, C., Reed, R., Ingram, N. & Lucas, C. (2005). Sociolinguistic issues in the Black Deaf community. In J. Fuller, B. Hollrah, J. G. Lewis, & C. McCaskill-Henry (Eds.), Black perspectives on the Deaf community (pp. 237–255). Gallaudet University.

Williamson, C. M. (2007). Black Deaf students: A model for educational success. Gallaudet University Press.

Woodward, J. C. (1976). Black Southern Signing. Language in Society 5(2), 211–218.

Woodward, J. C. (1985). Black Deaf teacher—Short supply. Perspectives for Teachers of the Hearing Impaired, 4, 18–19.

Woodward, J. C., & DeSantis, S. (1977). Two to one it happens: Dynamic phonology in two sign languages. Sign Language Studies, 17, 329–346.

Young, C. (2020, March 18). The powerful history story about Deaf Black & White students separated [Video]. https://youtu.be/5WI7kwG9tGY