A Mixed Methods Study of Pre-service Teachers’ Attitudes toward LGBTQ Themed Literature
While many of studies provide valuable insights into teachers’ attitudes toward LGBTQ curricula, more research is needed that examines pre-service teachers’ attitudes toward LGBTQ themed texts. The results from the type of research reported on in this article could assist teacher preparation programs to develop coursework intended to increase the willingness of pre-service teachers to use LGBTQ themed young adult literature in the classroom.
Allport, G. W. (1954). The nature of prejudice. Cambridge, MA: Perseus Books.
Alsup, J. & Miller, sj. (2014). Reclaiming English education: Rooting social justice in dispositions. English Education, 46(3), 195-215.
Applebee, A. N., Langer, J. A., Nystrand, M., & Gamoran, A. (2003). Discussion-based approaches to developing understanding: Classroom instruction and student performance in middle and high school English. American Educational Research Journal, 40(3), 685–730. https://doi.org/10.3102/00028312040003685
Athanases, S.Z. (1996). A gay-themed lesson in an ethnic literature curriculum: Tenth graders' responses to "Dear Anita." Harvard Educational Review, 66, 231–256. https://doi.org/10.17763/haer.66.2.q7450vp413tln38q
Banks, W.P. (2009). Literacy, sexuality, and the value(s) of queer young adult literatures. English Journal, 98(4), 33-36.
Bellini, C. (2012). The pink lesson plan: Addressing the emotional needs of gay and lesbian students in Canadian teacher education programs. Journal of LGBT Youth, 9(4), 373-396. https://doi.org/10.1080/19361653.2012.714178
Bernat, J.A., Calhoun, K.S., Adams, H.E., Zeichner, A. (2001). Homophobia and physical aggression toward homosexual and heterosexual individuals. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 110(1), 179-187. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-843X.110.1.179
Blackburn, M. V. (2003). Exploring Literacy Performances and Power Dynamics at the Loft: "Queer Youth Reading the World and the Word". Research in the Teaching of English, 467-490.
Blackburn, M. V. (2004). Understanding agency beyond school sanctioned activities. Theory into Practice, 43(2), 102-110. https://doi.org/10.1353/tip.2004.0016 https://doi.org/10.1207/s15430421tip4302_2
Blackburn, M. V., & Buckley, J. F. (2005). Teaching queer-inclusive English language arts. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 49(3), 202-212. https://doi.org/10.1598/JAAL.49.3.4
Bontempo, D. E., & D'Augelli, A. R. (2002). Effects of at-school victimization and sexual orientation on lesbian, gay, or bisexual youths' health risk behavior. Journal of Adolescent Health, 30, 364-374. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1054-139X(01)00415-3
Brown, L. D. (1991). Bridging organizations and sustainable development. Human Resources, 44, 807-831. https://doi.org/10.1177/001872679104400804
Cameron, L., & Rutland, A. (2006). Extended contact through story reading in school: Reducing children's prejudice toward the disabled. Journal of Social Issues, 62(3), 469-488. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4560.2006.00469.x
Cattell, R. B. (1978). The scientific use of factor analysis in behavioral and life sciences. New York, NY: Plenum. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4684-2262-7
Caughlan, S., Juzwik, M. M., Kelly, S., Borsheim-Black, C., & Fine, J. C. (2013). English teacher candidates developing dialogically organized instructional practices. Research in the Teaching of English, 47(3), 213-246.
Clark, C. (2010). Preparing LGBTQ-allies and combating homophobia in a U.S. teacher education program. Teaching and Teacher Education, 26, 704–713. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2009.10.006
Crocco, M. S. (2001). The missing discourse about gender and sexuality in the social studies. Theory into Practice, 40(1), 65-71. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15430421tip4001_10
Danielson, S. (2009). Q methods and surveys: Three ways to combine Q and R. Field Methods, 21(3), 219-237. https://doi.org/10.1177/1525822X09332082
Elsbree, A., & Wong, P. (2007). The Laramie Project as a homophobic disruption: How the play impacts pre-service teachers' preparation to create anti-homophobic schools. Journal of Gay & Lesbian Issues in Education, 4(4), 97-117. https://doi.org/10.1300/J367v04n04_07
Freedman, L., & Johnson, L. (2000). Who's protecting whom? I Hadn't Meant to Tell You This, a case in point in confronting self-censorship in the choice of young adult literature. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 44(4), 356-369.
Garrett, M. (2012). The LGBTQ component of 21st-century music teacher training: Strategies for inclusion from the research literature. Update: Applications of Research in Music Education, 31, 55-62. DOI: 10.1177/8755123312458294. https://doi.org/10.1177/8755123312458294
GLSEN. (n.d.). "Who we are." Gay, Lesbian, & Straight Education Network. Retrieved from http://glsen.org/learn/about-glsen.
Goodenow, C., Szalacha, L., & Westheimer, K. (2006). School support groups, other school factors, and the safety of sexual minority adolescents. Psychology in the Schools, 43(5), 573-589. https://doi.org/10.1002/pits.20173
Greytak, E., & Kosciw, J. (2013). Responsive classroom curriculua for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning students. In E. Fisher & K. Komosa-Hawkins (Eds.), Creating safe and supportive learning environments (pp. 156-174). New York: Routledge.
Haertling-Thein, A. (2013). Language arts teachers' resistance to teaching LGBT literature and issues. Language Arts, 90(3), 169-180.
Hamilton, G. (1998). Reading Jack. English Education, 30(1), 24-43.
Hayn, J., Kaplan, J. & Nolen, A. (2011). Young adult literature research in the 21st century. Theory into Practice, 50, 176–181. https://doi.org/10.1080/00405841.2011.584026
Hayn, J., & Nolen, A. (2012). Young adult literature: Defining the role of research. In J. Hayn & J. Kaplan (Eds.), Teaching young adult literature today (pp. 7–218). New York: Rowman & Littlefield.
Heck, N.C., Flentje, A., & Cochran, B.N. (2013). Offsetting risks: High school gay-straight alliances and lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth. Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity, 1(8), 81-90. https://doi.org/10.1037/2329-0382.1.S.81
Herek, G.M. (2000). Sexual prejudice and gender: Do heterosexuals' attitudes toward lesbians and gay men differ? Journal of Social Issues, 56(2), 251-266. https://doi.org/10.1111/0022-4537.00164
Hermann-Wilmarth, J. (2007). Full inclusion: Understanding the role of gay and lesbian texts and films in teacher education classrooms. Language Arts, 84(4), 347-356.
Hill, C. (2014). Young adult literature and scholarship comes of age. In C. Hill (Ed.), The critical merits of young adult literature (pp. 1–24). New York: Taylor & Francis.
Hoffman, M. (1993). Teaching "Torch Song": Gay literature in the classroom. English Journal, 82, (5), 55-58. https://doi.org/10.2307/820816
Hughes-Hassell, S., Overberg, E., & Harris, S. (2013). Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning (LGBTQ)-themed literature for teens: Are school libraries providing adequate collections? School Library Research, 16, 1-18.
Jennings, K. (2006). "Out" in the classroom: Addressing lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) issues in social studies curriculum. In W.E. Ross (Ed.), The social studies curriculum : Purposes, problems, and possibilities. (pp. 255-282). Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.
Juzwik, M. M., Borsheim-Black, C., Caughlan, S., & Heintz, A. (2013). Inspiring dialogue: Talking to learn in the English classroom. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.
Kaplan, J. (2010). Doctoral dissertations (2008–2009). A review of research on young adult literature. ALAN Review, 37(2), 54–58. https://doi.org/10.21061/alan.v37i2.a.8
Kaywell, J. F. (1993). Adolescents at risk: A guide to fiction and nonfiction for young adults, parents, and professionals. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Kaywell, J. F. (2004). Using literature to help troubled teenagers cope with abuse issues. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Kitchen, J., & Bellini, C. (2012). Addressing lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) issues in teacher education: Teacher candidates' perceptions. Alberta Journal of Educational Research, 58(3), 444-460.
Knotts, G., & Gregorio, D. (2011). Confronting homophobia at school: High school students and the Gay Men's Chorus of Los Angeles. Journal of LGBT Youth, 8(1), 66-83. https://doi.org/10.1080/19361653.2011.519193
Kosciw, J. G., Greytak, E. A., Bartkiewicz, M. J., Boesen, M. J., &
Lampela, L. (2005). Writing effective lesson plans while utilizing the work of lesbian and gay artists. Art Education, 58(2), 33-39. https://doi.org/10.1080/00043125.2005.11651533
Leech, N. L., & Onwuegbuzie, A. J. (2009). A typology of mixed methods research designs. Quality & Quantity, 43(2), 265-275. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11135-007-9105-3
Lesesne, T. (2010, February 27). When will they ever get it right? [Weblog Post]. Retrieved from http://professornana.livejournal.com/843564.html.
Lopez-Ropero, L. (2012). 'You are a Flaw in the Pattern': Difference, Autonomy and Bullying in YA Fiction. Children's literature in education, 43(2), 145-157. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10583-011-9145-0
Meyer, E. (2008) Gendered harassment in secondary schools: Understanding teachers' (non)interventions. Gender and Education, 20(6), 555-570. https://doi.org/10.1080/09540250802213115
Mudrey, R., & Medina-Adams, A. (2006). Attitudes, perceptions, and knowledge of pre-service teachers regarding the educational isolation of sexual minority youth. Journal of Homosexuality, 51(4), 63-90. https://doi.org/10.1300/J082v51n04_04
Murdock, T. B., & Bolch, M. B. (2005). Risk and protective factors for poor school adjustment in lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) high school youth: Variable and person‐centered analyses. Psychology in the Schools, 42(2), 159-172. https://doi.org/10.1002/pits.20054
Newman, I., & Ramlo, S. (2010). Using Q methodology and Q factor analysis in mixed methods research. In Tashakkori, A., & Teddlie, C. (Eds.). Sage handbook of mixed methods in social & behavioral research (505-530). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Owens, R.E. (1998). Queer kids: The challenges and promises for lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth. New York: Harrington Park Press.
Powell, R., Cantrell, S., & Correll, P. (in press). "How are we going to be testing that?": Challenges to implementing culturally responsive literacy instruction. In P. G. Schmidt & A. Lazar (Eds.), Reconceptualizing literacy in the new age of multiculturalism and pluralism (2nd ed.). Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing.
Prati, G. (2012). Development and psychometric properties of the homophobic bullying scale. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 72(4), 649 – 664. https://doi.org/10.1177/0013164412440169
Puchner, L., & Klein, N. (2011). The right time and place? Middle school language arts teachers talk about not talking about sexual orientation. Equity & Excellence in Education, 44(2), 233-248. https://doi.org/10.1080/10665684.2011.563182
Rauch, E. (2011). GLBTQ collections are for every library serving teens! Teacher Librarian, 39(1), 13-16.
Riggs, A. D., Rosenthal, A. R., & Smith-Bonahue, T. (2011). The impact of a combined cognitive–affective intervention on pre-service teachers' attitudes, knowledge, and anticipated professional behaviors regarding homosexuality and gay and lesbian issues. Teaching and Teacher Education, 27(1), 201-209. doi:10.1016/j.tate.2010.08.002. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2010.08.002
Rivers, I. (1995). The victimization of gay teenagers in schools: Homophobia in education. Pastoral Care in Education, 13(1), 35-41. https://doi.org/10.1080/02643949509470907
Rivers, I. (2011). Homophobic bullying: Research and theoretical perspectives. New York: Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195160536.001.0001
Robinson, K. H., & Ferfolja, T. (2001). 'What are we doing this for?' Dealing with lesbian and gay issues in teacher education. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 22(1), 121-133. https://doi.org/10.1080/01425690020030828
Rotheram-Borus, M. J., Hunter, J., & Rosario, M. (1994). Suicidal behavior and gay-related stress among gay and bisexual male adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Research, 9(4), 498-508. https://doi.org/10.1177/074355489494007
Rosenblatt, L. M. (1938). Literature as exploration. New York: Noble and Noble.
Russell, S. T., Kostroski, O., McGuire, J. K., Laub, C., & Manke, E. (2006). LGBT issues in the curriculum promotes school safety. California Safe Schools Coalition Research Brief, 4.
Schall, J., & Kauffmann, G. (2003). Exploring literature with gay and lesbian characters in the elementary school. Journal of Children's Literature, 29(1), 36–45.
Schmidt, S. J., Chang, S., Carolan-Silva, A., Lockhart, J., & Anagnostopoulos, D. (2012). Recognition, responsibility, and risk: Pre-service teachers' framing and reframing of lesbian, gay, and bisexual social justice issues. Teaching & Teacher Education, 28(8), 1175-1184. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2012.07.002
Schmolck, P. (2012). QMethod Page. Retrieved from http://www.lrz.de/~schmolck/qmethod/#PQMethod.
Sieben, N., & Wallowitz, L. (2009). "Watch what you teach": A first-year teacher refuses to play it safe. English Journal, 98(4), 44-49.
Spears-Bunton, L.A. (1992). Literature, literacy and resistance to cultural domination. In C. Kinzer and D. Leu (Eds.), Literacy research, theory and practice: Views from many perspectives (pp. 393-401). Chicago IL: The National Reading Conference.
Stephenson, W. (1953). The study of behavior: Q-technique and its methodology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Strauss, A., & Corbin, J. (1990). Basics of qualitative research: Grounded theory procedures and techniques. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.
Wright, S. C., Aron, A., McLaughlin-Volpe, T., & Ropp, S. A. (1997). The extended contact effect: Knowledge of cross-group friendships and prejudice. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73, 73–90. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-35220.127.116.11
Yang, Y., & Bliss, L.B. (2014). A Q factor analysis of college undergraduate students' study behaviors. Educational Research and Evaluation, 20, 433-453. doi: 10.1080/13803611.2014.971817 https://doi.org/10.1080/13803611.2014.971817
Zack, J. J., Mannheim, A., & Alfano, M. (2010). "I didn't know what to say...": Four archetypal responses to homophobic rhetoric in the classroom. High School Journal, 93(3), 98-110. https://doi.org/10.1353/hsj.0.0047
Copyright (c) 2015 Victor Malo-Juvera
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.