The Effect of an LGBTQ Themed Literary Instructional Unit on Adolescents’ Homophobia

  • Victor Malo-Juvera Jeanine Rainbolt College of Education The University of Oklahoma

Abstract

Numerous scholarly works extol the use of LGBTQ themed literature as part of English language arts instruction with the implication that its use may improve the school climate for LGBTQ students; however, there is a dearth of research that empirically examines whether or not this type of instruction measurably impacts adolescents’ homophobia.  To address this paucity, this study examined the ability of a dialogically organized, reader response–based instructional unit of the young adult novel Geography Club to reduce adolescents’ homophobia.  A quasi-experimental design was used with eighth grade students in seven English language arts classes.  Homophobia was measured using a researcher-created scale.  Analysis of pretests revealed that girls had lower levels of homophobia than boys and that Black students had higher levels of homophobia than Hispanic students.  Posttest results indicated that the intervention was successful in lowering homophobia.  Exploratory factor analysis revealed a three factor solution: Interpersonal Homophobia, Attitudes toward Homophobia, and Sexuality as a Choice.  Post-hoc tests revealed differing effect sizes for the aforementioned factors as well as showing that there was no backlash to treatment in participants with high pretest homophobia.  This paper argues that schools and teacher education programs should make a serious effort to incorporate LGBTQ themed texts into curricula as part of a concerted effort to reduce the culture of homophobic violence that has become institutionalized in many schools.

References

Aguero, J. E., Bloch, L., & Byrne, D. (1984). The relationships among sexual beliefs, attitudes, experience, and homophobia. Journal of Homosexuality, 10(1-2), 95-107. https://doi.org/10.1300/J082v10n01_07

Alexie, S. (2007). The absolutely true diary of a part-time Indian. New York: Little, Brown.

Anderson, C. L. (1981). The effect of a workshop on attitudes of female nursing students toward male homosexuality. Journal of Homosexuality, 7(1), 57-69. https://doi.org/10.1300/J082v07n01_06

Anderson, L. H. (1999). Speak. New York, NY: Farrar Straus Giroux.

Athanases, S.Z. (1996). A gay-themed lesson in an ethnic literature curriculum: Tenth graders' responses to "Dear Anita." Harvard Educational Review, 66, 231–256. https://doi.org/10.17763/haer.66.2.q7450vp413tln38q

Applebee, A. N., Langer, J. A., Nystrand, M., & Gamoran, A. (2003). Discussion-based approaches to developing understanding: Classroom instruction and student performance in middle and high school English. American Educational Research Journal, 40(3), 685–730. https://doi.org/10.3102/00028312040003685

Bakhtin, M. M. (1981). The dialogic imagination. (M. Holquist, Ed.; C. Emerson & M. Holquist, Trans.). Austin: University of Texas Press.

Banks, W.P. (2009). Literacy, sexuality, and the value(s) of queer young adult literatures. English Journal, 98(4), 33-36.

Beach, R. (1993). Reader response theories. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English.

Bell, B.A., Morgan, G.B., Schoeneberger, J.A., Loudermilk, B.L., Kromrey J.D., & Ferron, J.M. (2010). Dancing the sample size limbo with mixed models: How low can you go? SAS Global Forum 2010. Paper. 197–2010.

Bernat, J.A., Calhoun, K.S., Adams, H.E., Zeichner, A. (2001). Homophobia and physical aggression toward homosexual and heterosexual individuals. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 110(1), 179-187. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-843X.110.1.179

Black, K. N., & Stevenson, M. R. (1984). The relationship of self-reported sex-role characteristics and attitudes toward homosexuality. Journal of Homosexuality, 10(1-2), 83-93. https://doi.org/10.1300/J082v10n01_06

Blackburn, M. V. (2004). Understanding agency beyond school sanctioned activities. Theory into Practice, 43(2), 102-110. https://doi.org/10.1353/tip.2004.0016 https://doi.org/10.1207/s15430421tip4302_2

Blackburn, M. V., & Buckley, J. F. (2005). Teaching queer‐inclusive English language arts. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 49(3), 202-212. https://doi.org/10.1598/JAAL.49.3.4

Blackburn, M. V., & Clark, C. T. (2011). Analyzing talk in a long‐term literature discussion group: Ways of operating within LGBT‐inclusive and queer discourses. Reading Research Quarterly, 46(3), 222-248.

Blackburn, M. V., & McCready, L. T. (2009). Voices of queer youth in urban schools: Possibilities and limitations. Theory into Practice, 48(3), 222-230. https://doi.org/10.1080/00405840902997485

Bleich, D. (1989). Homophobia and sexism as popular values. Feminist Teacher, 4, 21-28.

Bonilla, L., & Porter, J. (1990). A comparison of Latino, Black, and non-Hispanic White attitudes toward homosexuality. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 12(4), 437-452. https://doi.org/10.1177/07399863900124007

Bontempo, D. E., & D'Augelli, A. R. (2002). Effects of at-school victimization and sexual orientation on lesbian, gay, or bisexual youths' health risk behavior. Journal of Adolescent Health, 30, 364-374. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1054-139X(01)00415-3

Cameron, L., & Rutland, A. (2006). Extended contact through story reading in school: Reducing children's prejudice toward the disabled. Journal of Social Issues, 62(3), 469-488. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4560.2006.00469.x

Carrera-Fernández, M., Lameiras-Fernández, M., Rodríguez-Castro, Y., & Vallejo-Medina, P. (2013). Bullying among spanish secondary education students: The role of gender traits, sexism, and homophobia. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 28(14), 2915-2940. https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260513488695

Cart, M. (1997). Honoring their stories, too: Literature for gay and lesbian teens. ALAN Review, 25(1), 40-45. https://doi.org/10.21061/alan.v25i1.a.8

Cart, M. (2004). What a wonderful world: Notes on the evolution of GLBTQ literature for young adults. The ALAN Review, 32(2), 46-52. https://doi.org/10.21061/alan.v31i2.a.7

Cart, M., & Jenkins, C. A. (2006). The heart has its reasons: Young adult literature with gay/lesbian/queer content, 1969-2004 (Vol. 18). Scarecrow Press.

Caughlan, S., Juzwik, M. M., Kelly, S., Borsheim-Black, C., & Fine, J. C. (2013). English teacher candidates developing dialogically organized instructional practices. Research in the Teaching of English, 47(3), 213-246.

Clark, C., & Blackburn, M.V. (2009). Reading LGBT-themed literature with young people: What's possible? English Journal, 98(4), 25-32.

Corley, T. J., & Pollack, R. H. (1996). Do changes in the stereotypic depiction of a lesbian couple affect heterosexuals' attitudes? Journal of Homosexuality, 32(2), 1-18. https://doi.org/10.1300/J082v32n02_01

Craig, W. M., & Pepler, D. J. (1995). Peer processes in bullying and victimization: An observational study. Exceptionality Education Canada, 5, 81–95.

Craig, W. M., & Pepler, D. J. (1997). Observations of bullying and victimization in the school yard. Canadian Journal of School Psychology, 13, 41–59. https://doi.org/10.1177/082957359801300205

Curwood, J. S., Schliesman, M., & Horning, K. T. (2009). Fight for your right: Censorship, selection, and LGBTQ literature. English Journal, 37-43.

Daniels, C. B., & Scully, S. (1992). Pity, fear, and catharsis in Aristotle's Poetics. Nous, 26(2), 204-217. https://doi.org/10.2307/2215735

Douglas, N., Warwick, I., Kemp, S., Whitty, G., & Aggleton, P. (1999). Homophobic bullying in secondary schools in England and Wales – teachers' experiences. Health Education, 99, 53–60. https://doi.org/10.1108/09654289910256914

Durell, M., Chiong, C., & Battle, J. (2007). Race, gender expectations, and homophobia: a quantitative exploration. Race, Gender & Class, 299-317.

Entin, G. (Director). (2013). Geography club [Motion picture]. Huffington Pictures.

Eskridge Jr, W. N. (2000). No promo homo: The sedimentation of antigay discourse and the channeling effect of judicial review. NYUL Review, 75, 1327.

Espelage, D. L., Basile, K. C., & Hamburger, M. E. (2011). Bullying perpetration and subsequent sexual violence perpetration among middle school students. Journal of Adolescent Health, 50(1), 60-65. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2011.07.015

Espelage, D. L., Holt, M. K., & Henkel, R. R. (2003). Examination of peer-group contextual effects on aggression during early adolescence. Child Development, 74(1), 205-220. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8624.00531

Finken, L. L. (2002). The impact of a human sexuality course on anti-gay prejudice: The challenge of reaching male students. Journal of Psychology & Human Sexuality, 14(1), 37-46. https://doi.org/10.1300/J056v14n01_03

Fisher, F. L. (1968). Influences of reading and discussion on the attitudes of fifth graders toward American Indians. The Journal of Educational Research, 130-134. https://doi.org/10.1080/00220671.1968.10883788

Gallo, D. (2004). Bold books for innovative teaching: The boldest books. English Journal, 93(4), 126-130. https://doi.org/10.2307/4128863

Geasler, M.J., Croteau, J.M., Heineman, C.J., & Edlund, C.J. (1995). A qualitative study of students' expressions of change after attending panel presentations by lesbian, gay, and bisexual speakers. Journal of College Student Development, 36, 483-492.

Geller, W.W. (1991). Lesbian and gay topics: Awakening a campus. Journal of College Student Development, 32, 91-92.

GLSEN. (2012). "No Promo Homo" Laws. Retrieved November 10, 2014, from http://glsen.org/learn/policy/issues/nopromohomo.

Godenzi, A., & De Puy, J. (2001). Overcoming boundaries: A cross-cultural inventory of primary prevention programs against wife abuse and child abuse. Journal of Primary Prevention, 21(4), 455. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1007158828076

Grack, C., & Richman, C. L. (1996). Reducing general and specific heterosexism through cooperative contact. Journal of Psychology & Human Sexuality, 8(4), 59-68. https://doi.org/10.1300/J056v08n04_04

Green, S., Dixon, P., & Gold-Neil, V. (1993). The effects of a gay/lesbian panel discussion on college student attitudes toward gay men, lesbians, and persons with AIDS. Journal of Sex Education and Therapy, 19(1), 47-63. https://doi.org/10.1080/01614576.1993.11074069

Haertling-Thein, A. (2013). Language arts teachers' resistance to teaching LGBT literature and issues. Language Arts, 90(3), 169-180.

Hamilton, G. (1998). Reading Jack. English Education, 30(1), 24-43.

Hansen, G. L. (1982). Measuring prejudice against homosexuality (homosexism) among college students: A new scale. The Journal of Social Psychology, 117(2), 233-236. https://doi.org/10.1080/00224545.1982.9713432

Hartinger, B. (2009). Geography club. NY: Harper Collins.

Hartinger, B. (2016). My books. Brent's Brain. Retrieved February 28, 2016, from http://brenthartinger.com/the-russel-middlebrook-books-2/

Hayn, J., & Hazlett, L. (2008). Connecting LGBTQ to others through problem novels: When a LGBTQ is NOT the main character. The ALAN Review, 36(1), 66-72. https://doi.org/10.21061/alan.v36i1.a.8

Hegarty, P. (2002). 'It's not a choice, it's the way we're built': symbolic beliefs about sexual orientation in the US and Britain. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 12(3), 153-166. https://doi.org/10.1002/casp.669

Hegarty, P., & Pratto, F. (2001). Sexual orientation beliefs: their relationship to anti-gay attitudes and biological determinist arguments. Journal of Homosexuality, 41(1), 121–135. https://doi.org/10.1300/J082v41n01_04

Herek, G. M. (1984). Attitudes toward lesbians and gay men: A factor-analytic study. Journal of Homosexuality, 10(1-2), 39-51. https://doi.org/10.1300/J082v10n01_03

Herek, G.M. (2000). Sexual prejudice and gender: Do heterosexuals' attitudes toward lesbians and gay men differ? Journal of Social Issues, 56(2), 251-266. https://doi.org/10.1111/0022-4537.00164

Herek, G. M. (1984). Attitudes toward lesbians and gay men: A factor-analytic study. Journal of Homosexuality, 10(1-2), 39-51. https://doi.org/10.1300/J082v10n01_03

Herek, G. M., & Capitanio, J. P. (1995). Black heterosexuals' attitudes toward lesbians and gay men in the United States. Journal of Sex Research, 32, 95–105. https://doi.org/10.1080/00224499509551780

Hilton, N. Z. (2000). The role of attitudes and awareness in anti-violence education. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma, 3(1), 221-238. https://doi.org/10.1300/J146v03n01_14

Hilton, N. Z., Harris, G. T., Rice, M. E., Krans, T. S., & Lavigne, S. E. (1998). Antiviolence education in high schools: Implementation and evaluation. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 13, 726-742. https://doi.org/10.1177/088626098013006004

Hoffman, M. (1993). Teaching "Torch Song": Gay literature in the classroom. English Journal, 82, (5), 55-58. https://doi.org/10.2307/820816

Hudson, W. W., & Ricketts, W. A. (1980). A strategy for the measurement of homophobia. Journal of homosexuality, 5(4), 357-372. https://doi.org/10.1300/J082v05n04_02

Hughes-Hassell, S., Overberg, E., & Harris, S. (2013). Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning (LGBTQ)-themed literature for teens: Are school libraries providing adequate collections? School Library Research, 16.

Jaffe, P. G., Suderman, M., Reitzel, D., & Killip, S.M. (1992). An evaluation of a secondary school primary prevention program on violence in intimate relationships. Violence and Victims, 7, 129-146.

Juzwik, M. M., Borsheim-Black, C., Caughlan, S., & Heintz, A. (2013). Inspiring dialogue: Talking to learn in the English classroom. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.

Kann, L., Kinchen, S., Shanklin, S.L., Flint, K., Hawkins, J., Harris, W.A.,…Zaza, S. (2013). Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance - United States, 2013. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Surveillance Summaries, 63(4). Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/pdf/ss/ss6304.pdf.

Kaywell, J. F. (1993). Adolescents at risk: A guide to fiction and nonfiction for young adults, parents, and professionals. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

Kaywell, J. F. (2004). Using literature to help troubled teenagers cope with abuse issues. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

Kline, P. (1999). The handbook of psychological testing. London: Routledge.

Knotts, G., & Gregorio, D. (2011). Confronting homophobia at school: High school students and the Gay Men's Chorus of Los Angeles. Journal of LGBT Youth, 8(1), 66-83. https://doi.org/10.1080/19361653.2011.519193

Koeller, S. (1977). The effect of listening to excerpts from children's stories about Mexican-Americans on the attitudes of sixth graders. The Journal of Educational Research, 70, (6), 329-334. https://doi.org/10.1080/00220671.1977.10885017

Kosciw, J. G., Greytak, E. A., Bartkiewicz, M. J., Boesen, M. J., & Palmer, N. A. (2012). The 2011 national school climate survey: The experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender youth in our nation's schools. Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network (GLSEN). Retrieved September 13, 2014, from http://glsen.org/sites/default/files/2011%20National%20School%20Climate%20Survey%20Full%20Report.pdf.

Lance, L.M. (1987). The effects of interaction with gay persons on attitudes toward homosexuality. Human Relations, 40(6), 329-336. https://doi.org/10.1177/001872678704000601

Letcher, M. (2009). Off the shelves: Celebrating love in all shades: YA books with LGBTQ themes. English Journal, 123-126.

Levitt, E. E., & Klassen, Jr, A. D. (1976). Public attitudes toward homosexuality: Part of the 1970 national survey by the Institute for Sex Research. Journal of Homosexuality, 1(1), 29-43. https://doi.org/10.1300/J082v01n01_03

Lewis, G. B. (2003). Black-white differences in attitudes toward homosexuality and gay rights. Public Opinion Quarterly, 67(1), 59-78. https://doi.org/10.1086/346009

Liebkind, K & Mcalister, A. (1999). Extended contact through peer modeling to promote tolerance in Finland. European Journal of Social Psychology 29, 765-780. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-0992(199908/09)29:5/6<765::AID-EJSP958>3.0.CO

Lindbloom, K. (Ed.). (2009). Sexual identity and gender variance [Special issue]. English Journal, 98(4).

Lopez-Ropero, L. (2012). 'You are a Flaw in the Pattern': Difference, autonomy and bullying in YA fiction. Children's Literature in Education, 43(2), 145-157. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10583-011-9145-0

Maas, C. J., & Hox, J. J. (2004). Robustness issues in multilevel regression analysis. Statistica Neerlandica, 58(2), 127-137. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.0039-0402.2003.00252.x

Maas, C. J., & Hox, J. J. (2005). Sufficient sample sizes for multilevel modeling. Methodology, 1(3), 86-92. https://doi.org/10.1027/1614-2241.1.3.86 https://doi.org/10.1027/1614-2241.1.3.85

Malo-Juvera, V. (2014). Speak: The effect of literary instruction on adolescents' rape myth acceptance. Research in the Teaching of English, 48(4), 404-427.

Malo-Juvera, V. (2015). A mixed methods study of pre-service teachers' attitudes toward LGBTQ themed literature. Study and Scrutiny: Research on Young Adult Literature, 1(1), 1-45. https://doi.org/10.15763/issn.2376-5275.2015.1.1.1-45

Malo-Juvera, V. & Spears-Bunton, L. (2015). A qualitative analysis of high school students' engagement with poetry and social justice. Journal of Language and Literacy Education, 11(2), 1-22.

Mar, R. A., Oatley, K., Hirsh, J., de la Paz, J., & Peterson, J. B. (2006). Bookworm versus nerds: Exposure to fiction versus non-fiction, divergent associations with personality, ability, and achievement. Journal of Research in Personality, 40, 694-712. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrp.2005.08.002

Mar, R. A., Oatley, K., & Peterson, J. B. (2009). Exploring the link between reading fiction and empathy: Ruling out individual differences and examining outcomes. Communications, 34(4), 407-428. https://doi.org/10.1515/COMM.2009.025

Matusov, E. (2004). Guest editor's introduction: Bakhtin's dialogic pedagogy. Journal of Russian & East European Psychology, 42(6), 3-11. https://doi.org/10.1080/10610405.2004.11059237 https://doi.org/10.2753/RPO1061-0405500600

Meyer, E. (2008) Gendered harassment in secondary schools: Understanding teachers' (non)interventions. Gender and Education, 20(6), 555-570. https://doi.org/10.1080/09540250802213115

Miller, sj. (2014). Moving an anti-bullying stance into schools: Supporting the identities of transgender and gender variant youth. In A. Ibrahim (Ed.), Critical studies youth reader (pp. 161-171). New York, NY: Peter Lang.

Miller, sj, & Slifkin, J. M. (2010). Similar literary quality": Demystifying the AP English literature and composition open question. The ALAN Review, 37(2), 6-16. https://doi.org/10.21061/alan.v37i2.a.1

Mitchell, M. (2009). When consciousness dawns: Confronting homophobia with Turkish high school students. English Journal, 98 (4), 67-72. https://doi.org/10.2307/819644

Myers, W. D. (1999). Monster. New York, NY: HarperCollins.

Nansel, T. R., Overpeck, M., Pilla, R. S., Ruan, W. J., Simons-Morton, B., & Scheidt, P. (2001). Bullying behaviors among US youth: Prevalence and association with psychosocial adjustment. JAMA, 285(16), 2094-2100. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.285.16.2094

Norton, T. L., & Vare, J. W. (2004). Literature for today's gay and lesbian teens: Subverting the culture of silence. English Journal, 65-69. https://doi.org/10.2307/4128776

Nussbaum, M. C. (1990). Love's knowledge: Essays on philosophy and literature. New York: Oxford.

Nystrand, M. (with Gamoran, A., Kachur, R., & Prendergast, C.) (1997). Opening dialogue: Understanding the dynamics of language and learning in the English classroom. New York: Teachers College Press.

Nystrand, M., & Gamoran, A. (1991). Instructional discourse, student engagement, and literature achievement. Research in the Teaching of English, 25, 261–290.

Olweus, D. (1993). Victimization by peers: Antecedents and long-term outcomes. In K.H. Rubin, & J.B. Asendorpf (Eds.), Social withdrawal, inhibition, and shyness in childhood, (pp. 315-341). New York, NY: Taylor & Francis.

Owens, R.E. (1998). Queer kids: The challenges and promises for lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth. New York: Harrington Park Press.

Pagtolun-an, I. & Clair, J. (1986). An experimental study of attitudes towards homosexuals. Deviant Behavior, 7, 121–135. https://doi.org/10.1080/01639625.1986.9967701

Pongratz, R. (2005). The identification and analysis of latent constructs in the measurement of homophobia. Dissertation Abstracts International, 66 (06-B). (UMI No. 3178268)

Prati, G. (2012). Development and psychometric properties of the homophobic bullying scale. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 72(4), 649 – 664. https://doi.org/10.1177/0013164412440169

Price, J. H. (1982). High school students' attitudes toward homosexuality. Journal of School Health, 52, 469-474. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1746-1561.1982.tb04016.x

Raja, S., & Stokes, J. P. (1998). Assessing attitudes toward lesbians and gay men: The Modern Homophobia Scale. International Journal of Sexuality and Gender Studies, 3(2), 113-134. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1023244427281

Rivers, I. (1995). The victimization of gay teenagers in schools: Homophobia in education. Pastoral Care in Education, 13(1), 35-41. https://doi.org/10.1080/02643949509470907

Rivers, I. (2011). Homophobic bullying: Research and theoretical perspectives. New York: Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195160536.001.0001

Robin, L., Brener, N. D., Donahue, S. F., Hack, T., Hale, K., & Goodenow, C. (2002). Associations between health risk behaviors and opposite-, same-, and both-sex sexual partners in representative samples of Vermont and Massachusetts high school students. Archives of pediatrics & adolescent medicine, 156(4), 349-355. https://doi.org/10.1001/archpedi.156.4.349

Rotheram-Borus, M. J., Hunter, J., & Rosario, M. (1994). Suicidal behavior and gay-related stress among gay and bisexual male adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Research, 9(4), 498-508. https://doi.org/10.1177/074355489494007

Rosenblatt, L. M. (1978). The reader, the text, the poem: The transactional theory of the literary work. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University.

Rosenblatt, L. M. (1995). Literature as exploration. New York: Modern Language Association of America.

Salmivalli, C., Lagerspetz, K., Bjorkqvist, K., & Kaukiainen, A. (1996). Bullying as a group process; Participant roles and their relations to social status within the group. Aggressive Behavior, 22, 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1098-2337(1996)22:1%3C1::AID-AB1%3E3.0.CO;2-T

Schall, J., & Kauffmann, G. (2003). Exploring literature with gay and lesbian characters in the elementary school. Journal of Children's Literature, 29(1), 36–45.

Sieben, N., & Wallowitz, L. (2009). "Watch what you teach": A first-year teacher refuses to play it safe. English Journal, 98(4), 44-49.

Smith, P. K., Kupferberg, A., Mora-Merchan, J. A., Samara, M., Bosley, S., & Osborn, R. (2012). A content analysis of school anti-bullying policies: A follow-up after six years. Educational psychology in practice, 28(1), 47-70. https://doi.org/10.1080/02667363.2011.639344

Smith, P., & Welchans, S. (2000). Peer education: Does focusing on male responsibility change sexual assault attitudes? Violence Against Women, 6, 1255-1268. https://doi.org/10.1177/10778010022183622

Stansfield, J., & Bunce, L. (2014). The relationship between empathy and reading fiction: Separate roles for cognitive and affective components. Journal of European Psychology Students, 5(3), 9-18. https://doi.org/10.5334/jeps.ca

Steinbeck, J. (1937). Of mice and men. New York: Covici-Friede.

Swearer, S. M., Espelage, D. L., Vaillancourt, T., & Hymel, S. (2010). What can be done about school bullying? Linking research to educational practice. Educational Researcher, 39(1), 38-47. https://doi.org/10.3102/0013189X09357622

Swearer, S. M., Turner, R. K., Givens, J. E., & Pollack, W. S. (2008). "You're So Gay!": Do Different Forms of Bullying Matter for Adolescent Males?. School Psychology Review, 37(2), 160.

Szalacha, L. A. (2003). Safer sexual diversity climates: Lessons learned from an evaluation of Massachusetts safe schools program for gay and lesbian students. American Journal of Education, 110(1), 58-88. https://doi.org/10.1086/377673

Ttofi, M. M., & Farrington, D. P. (2011). Effectiveness of school-based programs to reduce bullying: A systematic and meta-analytic review. Journal of Experimental Criminology, 7(1), 27-56. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11292-010-9109-1

Van de Ven, P. (1995). Effects on high school students of a teaching module for reducing homophobia. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 17, (1 & 2), 153-172. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15324834basp1701&2_9 https://doi.org/10.1080/01973533.1995.9646137

Van de Ven, P., Bornholt, L., & Bailey, M. (1996). Measuring cognitive, affective, and behavioral components of homophobic reaction. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 25, (2), 155-179. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02437934

Waldner, L. K., Sikka, A., & Baig, S. (1999). Ethnicity and sex differences in university students' knowledge of AIDS, fear of AIDS, and homophobia. Journal of homosexuality, 37(3), 117-133. https://doi.org/10.1300/J082v37n03_07

Waterman, A.D., Garfield, L.D., & Hoy, S.D. (2001). From curiosity to care: Heterosexual student interest in sexual diversity courses. Teaching of Psychology, 28(1), 21-26. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15328023TOP2801_05

Wells, J.W. (1991). What makes a difference? Various teaching strategies to reduce homophobia in university students. Annals of Sex Research, 4, 229-238. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00850055

Wright, L.W., Jr., Adams, H.E., & Bernat, J. (1999). Development and validation of the homophobia scale. Journal of Psychotherapy and Behavioral Assessment, 21, 337-347. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1022172816258

Zack, J. J., Mannheim, A., & Alfano, M. (2010). "I didn't know what to say...": Four archetypal responses to homophobic rhetoric in the classroom. High School Journal, 93(3), 98-110. https://doi.org/10.1353/hsj.0.0047

Zanitsch, J. (2009). Playing in the margins: Process drama as a prereading strategy with LGBT YA literature. English Journal, 85-91.

Published
2016-07-08
Section
Empirical Studies