Main Article Content
The use of disfluency in marketing signage has more complex effects than what past research suggests. Time plays an important role in consumer information processing of signage presented disfluently. Three experimental studies suggest that the effects of disfluency on the awareness of missing information, purchase likelihood, and likelihood of future surprise depend on whether consumers have more or less time to process the information. When they have a limited amount of time, disfluency improves their awareness of missing information, leading to not only a lower likelihood of immediate purchase but also less surprise when important omissions are revealed later. Nevertheless, the effects are attenuated when consumers have a greater amount of time.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Brehm, J. W. and Self, E. A. (1989). The intensity of motivation. Annual Review of Psychology 40(1), 109-131. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ps.40.020189.000545
Cohen, J., Cohen, P., West, S. G., and Aiken, L. S. (eds). (2013). Applied Multiple Regression/Correlation Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203774441
Dennis, C., Newman, A., Michon, R., Brakus, J. J., and Wright, L. T. (2010). The mediating effects of perception and emotion: Digital signage in mall atmospherics. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services 17, 205-215. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jretconser.2010.03.009
Dynel, M. (2011). Blending the incongruity-resolution model and the conceptual integration theory: The case of blends in pictorial advertising. International Review of Pragmatics 3, 59-83. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1163/187731011X561009
Gill, M. J., Swann Jr, W. B., and Silvera, D. H. (1998). On the genesis of confidence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 75(5), 1101-1114. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-35188.8.131.521
Hayes, A. F. (2018). Introduction to Mediation, Moderation, and Conditional Process Analysis: A Regression-Based Approach. New York: Guilford.
Heaton, A. W. and Kruglanski, A. W. (1991). Person perception by introverts and extraverts under time pressure: Effects of need for closure. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 17, 161-165. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/014616729101700207
Hobbs, T. (2016). “Marketers continue to ‘waste money’ as only 9% of digital ads are viewed for more than a second.” Marketing Week, 26 June. https://www.marketingweek.com/marketers-continue-to-waste-money-as-only-9-of-digital-ads-are-viewed-for-morethan-a-second/
Huddleston, P. T., Behe, B. K., Driesener, C., and Minahan, S. (2018). Inside-outside: Using eye-tracking to investigate search-choice processes in the retail environment. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services 43, 85-93. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jretconser.2018.03.006
Jacoby, L. L. and Dallas, M. (1981). On the relationship between autobiographical memory and perceptual learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 110(3), 306. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/0096-34184.108.40.2066
Kardes, F. R., Posavac, S. S., Silvera, D., Cronley, M. L., Sanbonmatsu, D. M., Schertzer, S., and Chandrashekaran, M. (2006). Debiasing omission neglect. Journal of Business Research 59, 786-792. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2006.01.016
Kim, M. and Lennon, S. (2008). The effects of visual and verbal information on attitudes and purchase intentions in internet shopping. Psychology and Marketing 25, 146-178. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/mar.20204
Kumar, N., Lang, K. R., and Peng, Q. (2005). Consumer search behavior in online shopping environments. Proceedings of the 38th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences 3(3), 87-102. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/HICSS.2005.163
Kruglanski, A. W. and Freund, T. (1983). The freezing and unfreezing of lay-inferences: Effects on impressional primacy, ethnic stereotyping, and numerical anchoring. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 19, 448-468. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-1031(83)90022-7
Kruglanski, A. W., Webster, D. M., and Klem, A. (1993). Motivated resistance and openness to persuasion in the presence or absence of prior information. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 65, 861-876. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-35220.127.116.111
Lee, A. Y., and Labroo, A. A. (2004). The effect of conceptual and perceptual fluency on brand evaluation. Journal of Marketing Research 41, 151-165. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1509/jmkr.18.104.22.168665
Morones, H. (2008). 5 rules of effective billboard design and advertising. 99 Designs. https://99designs.com/blog/tips/billboard-design-tips/
Nielsen, J. H., and Escalas, J. E. (2010). Easier is not always better: The moderating role of processing type on preference fluency. Journal of Consumer Psychology 20, 295-305. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcps.2010.06.016
Novemsky, N., Dhar, R., Schwarz, N., and Simonson, I. (2007). Preference fluency in choice. Journal of Marketing Research 44, 347-356. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1509/jmkr.44.3.347
Pieters, R., Warlop, L., and Wedel, M. (2002). Breaking through the clutter: Benefits of advertisement originality and familiarity for brand attention and memory. Management Science 48, 765-781. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1287/mnsc.48.6.765.192
Reber, R. and Schwarz, N. (2001). The hot fringes of consciousness: Perceptual fluency and affect. Consciousness and Emotion 2, 223-231. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1075/ce.2.2.03reb
Roets, A., Kruglanski, A. W., Kossowska, M., Pierro, A., and Hong, Y. Y. (2015). The motivated gatekeeper of our minds: New directions in need for cognitive closure theory and research. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology 52, 221-283.
Roggeveen, A. L., and Johar, G. V. (2002). Perceived source variability versus familiarity: Testing competing explanations for the truth effect. Journal of Consumer Psychology 12, 81-91. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327663JCP1202_02
Sanbonmatsu, D. M., Kardes, F. R., Houghton, D. C., Ho, E. A., and Posavac, S. S. (2003). Overestimating the importance of the given information in multiattribute consumer judgment. Journal of Consumer Psychology 13(3), 289-300. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327663JCP1303_10
Sanbonmatsu, D. M., Kardes, F. R., and Sansone, C. (1991). Remembering less and inferring more: Effects of time of judgment on inferences about unknown attributes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 61(4), 546–554. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3522.214.171.1246
Sanna, L. J. and Schwarz, N. (2003). Debiasing the hindsight bias: The role of accessibility experiences and (mis) attributions. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 39, 287-295. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-1031(02)00528-0
Sanna, L. J., and Schwarz, N. (2006). Metacognitive experiences and human judgment: The case of hindsight bias and its debiasing. Current Directions in Psychological Science 15, 172-176. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8721.2006.00430.x
Sanna, L. J., Schwarz, N., and Stocker, S. L. (2002). When debiasing backfires: Accessible content and accessibility experiences in debiasing hindsight. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 28, 497-302.
Schwarz, N. (2004). Metacognitive experiences in consumer judgment and decision making. Journal of Consumer Psychology 14(4), 332-348. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327663jcp1404_2
Silvera, D. H., Kardes, F. R., Harvey, N., Cronley, M. L., and Houghton, D. C. (2005). Contextual influences on omission neglect in the fault tree paradigm. Journal of Consumer Psychology 15(2), 117-126. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327663jcp1502_4
Smith, M. D., Bailey, J., and Brynjolfsson, E. (1999). Understanding digital markets: review and assessment. MIT Press, Cambridge.
Song, H. and Schwarz, N. (2008). Fluency and the detection of misleading questions: Low processing fluency attenuates the Moses illusion. Social Cognition 26, 791-799. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1521/soco.2008.26.6.791
Sundar, A., Wu, R., and Kardes, F. R. (2019). Faded fonts. Interdisciplinary Journal of Signage and Wayfinding 3, 16-27. DOI: https://doi.org/10.15763/issn.2470-9670.2019.v1.i2.a37
Sundar, A., Gonsales, F., and Schafer, G. (2018). Synchronicity in signage promotes a sense of belonging. Interdisciplinary Journal of Signage and Wayfinding 2(2), 30-40. DOI: https://doi.org/10.15763/issn.2470-9670.2018.v2.i2.a34
Taylor, C. R., Franke, G. R., and Bang, H. K. (2006). Use and effectiveness of billboards: perspectives from selective-perception theory and retail-gravity models. Journal of Advertising 35, 21-34. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2753/JOA0091-3367350402
Tversky, A. and Kahneman, D. (1973). Availability: A heuristic for judging frequency and probability. Cognitive Psychology 5(2), 207-232. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0010-0285(73)90033-9
Unkelbach, C., Fiedler, K., and Freytag, P. (2007). Information repetition in evaluative judgments: Easy to monitor, hard to control. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 103(1), 37-52. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.obhdp.2006.12.002
Visual, P. (2016). Common signage problems and how to deal with them. PB Visual, 27 April. http://pbvisual.com.au/how-to-deal-with-4-common-signage-problems/
Webster, D. M. and Kruglanski, A. W. (1994). Individual differences in need for cognitive closure. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 1049-1062. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-35126.96.36.1999
Weisbuch, M. and Mackie, D. (2009). False fame, perceptual clarity, or persuasion? Flexible fluency attribution in spokesperson familiarity effects. Journal of Consumer Psychology 19, 62-72. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcps.2008.12.009
Wu, R., Escoe, B., and Kardes, F. (2017). You are not as smart as you think you are: Effects of self-perceived knowledge on consumer information processing and decision making. ACR North American Advances.
Wu, R., Shah, E., and Kardes, F. (2016). Disfluency effects on inference and evaluation. ACR North American Advances.
Wu, R., Shah, E., and Kardes, F. (2020). “The struggle isn’t real:” How need for cognitive closure moderates inferences from disfluency. Journal of Business Research 109, 585-594. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2019.03.042
Yeo, G. and Neal, A. (2008). Subjective cognitive effort: A model of states, traits, and time. Journal of Applied Psychology 93(3), 617-631. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.93.3.617
Yoon, A. Choi, S.M., Hong, J., Hahn, D., Kang, M., and Lee, S. (2014). Motivational Signage Promotes Physical Activity on a College Campus. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 46, 108. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1249/01.mss.0000493492.56108.b6