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The use of disfluency in marketing signage has more complex effects than what past research suggests. Time plays an important role in consumer information processing of signage presented disfluently. Three experimental studies suggest that the effects of disfluency on the awareness of missing information, purchase likelihood, and likelihood of future surprise depend on whether consumers have more or less time to process the information. When they have a limited amount of time, disfluency improves their awareness of missing information, leading to not only a lower likelihood of immediate purchase but also less surprise when important omissions are revealed later. Nevertheless, the effects are attenuated when consumers have a greater amount of time.
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